Zhang Lijie
(b.1981) Photographer based in Beijing, China
The Innocent / 天真者的像

《天真者的像》

/ 图文:张立洁 /

《天真者的像》这个项目开始于2012年春天。4月2日,是一年一度的世界自闭症日,北京孤独症康复协会和中间美术馆合作举办了一场名为《天真者的画》的孤独症儿童画展。我和我在中国残疾人杂志社工作的几个同事去了现场。这些绘画作品让我颇感意外,在这些特殊的艺术家笔下,看不到“障碍”,与之相反的是“一个个生机勃勃的生命坦诚展现,强烈的情感扑面而来……”借此,我认识了几个参展的“小画家”,开始用镜头去了解他们的世界。


They are a group of artists with autism; with relatively professional statement should be "Art Brut" category.

Native Art (Art Brut) was advocated by the French artists Jean Dubuffet in 1945, and now it still has an important impact on the art world. Jean Dubuffet visited multiple mental hospitals in Geneva, Lausanne and Bern. He was deeply moved by these patients' painting and sculpture. These non-leagues irrelevant presented the more magical side of the art world.

China's Autism native art started in 2008 when the UN general assembly resolution will be every year on 2ndof April, as "The World Autism Day" (World Autism Day) to increase people for autism and related research and diagnosis attention. While "the first autistic children's art exhibition" was held in a remote gallery in Beijing's 798 art district. It exhibited in a hurry for only one day. Since then it was only five years, people were impressed by their imaginative ideas and became knowing the more unprecedented behind the author, autistic children's group.

Autism is a kind of extensive development obstacle to serious, extensive social interaction and communication skills, and inflexible behavior, interest is the characteristic of mental illness. According to international statistical proportion, the incidence of autism population accounts for about eight to 15 over ten thousand of the total, and there is an upward trend. China autistic children are more than one million. Among them, the risk of boys is three to four times higher than for girls. But, the cause of autism is still an unsolved mystery.

If there are always some people can never turn normal, they will always show their value of existence by some other ways. "Autism" may be able to describe this group in medical level, but is not effective in the context of art. Their works are full of the soul of the original creation of energy. They are pure and direct that is coming from a pure heart. Fortunately, there are these "naive," remind us that we can also return to the origin. Their purity and creativity could not only let us surprise, but also let a person feels small and ashamed. For a long time the "mainstream" trapped, ignored and misled their talents.

Picasso said: "I can paint as well as Rafael when I was a little kid, but I spend a lifetime to learn how to paint like a child." Indeed, facing them, it doesn't need a professional, just appreciate peacefully. In front of them, we are still beginners.




小睿,1999年生,自闭症。五岁时第一次拿到画笔,闹腾的小睿就突然安静了。小睿画画有一个很独特的习惯,从不打草稿,由某个犄角旮旯起笔,顺势画出临近的元素,直至整个画面,严丝合缝,比例、尺度都在心里。繁复的古典建筑、风景名胜、革命圣地都是他偏爱的表现内容。


小雯,1979年生,智力障碍伴随精神分裂症。小雯虽然话不多,但永远带着腼腆的笑,安静地写着画着。她钟情于最简单的物体,动物、水果……机械的重复之中又有细微差别,表面的刻板之下隐的是思维的跳动。


芊芊,1995年生,自闭症。她不会说话,不理人,对周围熟视无睹,连最亲的爸妈也不理不采,这是大多数自闭症孩子的共同特征。妈妈说:“很多认识我的人都说,你真有耐心!我说,你只是没有看到我发疯和歇斯底里的样子。”


秀杰,1990年生,智力障碍。成长在单亲家庭的秀杰从小就十分渴望人与人之间的交流和互动,所有的作品几乎都是同老师、朋友、学员聊天后的产物。妈妈说,秀洁的头发不知什么原因总在慢慢的脱落,于是她的画上经常出现长发飘飘的女孩。


小满,1995年生,自闭症。他的运动量很大,每天依依呀呀地在屋里转悠,却从不和人交流。小满刻画人物的笔法已自成风格,随意而又自如,尤其是面部表情的表现,每个人物的眼睛和嘴都在诉说,有力地传达出神秘、不安和极为惊惧的意味。


康康,1998年生,自闭症。康康性格温和、单纯,除了画画之外,他最拿手也最感兴趣的是烘培,能够照着配料表做出美味的巧克力玛芬蛋糕。康康的父母希望在他们百年之后,能够有合格的养护机构让这些特殊的孩子有尊严地生活下去。



阳阳。他被母亲辗转千里“送”到南京博爱中心,留下300元的生活费后,母亲便杳无音信。他想念家人,画了无数张妈妈,“妈妈们”都有一双挚爱的眼睛。在这些特殊艺术家笔下,一个个生机勃勃的生命坦诚展现,情感扑面而来。他们的光彩完全来自于人的天性。


小 铠,2002年生,自闭症。小铠与父母、未满一岁的妹妹蜗居于北京郊区一所农民工子弟学校里。废旧的教室就是他的“家”,斑驳的黑板是他的画布。昂贵的康 复训练费对小铠父母来说难以负担,马上就到青春期了,母亲很是紧张。遇上想表达却无法说出来时,他会尖叫、自残、打妹妹。


均 均,1994年生,自闭症。他考取了国家初级钢琴调律师资格证,这在广西玉林市是第一位,很快均均就顺利接到了第一单生意。像很多自闭症孩子一样,他有一 些很特别的小习惯,比如洁癖,画画时有遗漏的颜料管他是不肯碰的。均均的这些小刻板在旁人看来不可理解,在妈妈眼中却既可爱又可气。


小 丞,2001年生,自闭症。别人是画画,小丞是“涂画”,一天能涂好几大张,洋溢着生命的热烈、饱满和任性。从幼儿园到小学,小丞一直幸运地得以在正常小 学随班就读,老师、同学对他都关爱有加。轮滑、游泳、听音乐会,母子的休闲生活丰富多彩,为了让他找到一条纾解情绪的通道,母亲把他带进绘画的世界。


萌 萌,1992年生,自闭症。萌萌刚刚完成一次壮举——从最北的漠河一路到海南三亚,全程7000公里。这次名为“孤独的行走”的活动是为贫困自闭症儿童募 捐而发起的。萌萌的画像他的人一样,规规矩矩,但是仔细看,每个色块每个形象都是由点组成的,细小密集,变化得微妙而新奇。




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